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The disease of olive trees in Puglia: an ecosystem, economy and political problem

The disease of olive trees in Puglia: an ecosystem, economy and political problem

Publication by Prof. Pietro Perrino, former Director of the CNR of Bari

Download publication: CORVELVA-La-disease-of-trees-in-Puglia-Peter-Perrino.pdf


Introduction to Corvelva

In May we had decided to take an interest in the problem of olive trees in Puglia, President Ferdinando Donolato has always spent time on related topics with an eye to organic agriculture, and we had come across a signature collection, a petition carried out by one of the many mothers active that fight for the freedoms of everyone and everything, Brigitta.

This had further opened our eyes to a topic that we knew, but which, even for geographical distance, we had not touched with our hands.

Alessandra Mercorio of the Corvelva staff had the brilliant idea of ​​asking Prof. Pietro Perrino for a text, a letter, something that would give us the opportunity to divulge a thorny and current topic with greater knowledge of the facts. We thought everything, but not to receive from the great Perrino a text with contents and form similar to a scientific publication. Precious. So precious to convince us that the best way was to treat this text as a real scientific publication and, therefore, to go and request its publication in magazines in the agri-food sector.
So Corvelva discovered that the problem of Xylella is similar to the problem of vaccines: obviously we are talking about two very different things, but the approach that sector magazines and the media have on this topic is the same, denial and obscurantism, total censorship .

Well, we decided in agreement with Prof. Pietro Perrino to do everything possible for this text, and in general the Xylella topic, to take the right place in the political and social debate. Let's remember it all, the Xylella question is a different topic but it is the same problem, the defense of a choice against political and scientific imposition.


Summary

Xylella is not the cause of olive tree disease in Puglia. The disease is called the Rapid Olive Drying Complex (CoDiRO) and is caused by environmental criticalities, which have determined the sterility of the soil. These critical issues have lasted for decades and are stronger precisely in the hotbed areas of Salento, where desertification has been more evident for years than in other provinces of Puglia. There is a close relationship between pollution, desertification and CoDiRO. Unfortunately, the heads of the institutions do not want to see this relationship and therefore do not favor agricultural models with low environmental impact. Indeed, the blindness of our Ministry of Agriculture has produced a DM Martina, which even forces farmers to use massive pesticides. The Salento are fighting against governments, regional and national, also through demonstrations, to block the DM. The Apulian political leaders are deaf and blind to the encouraging results of research conducted by groups of private olive growers and mixed research groups, made up of olive growers and private researchers and public researchers. The solution to the CoDiRO problem is not the felling of sick and non-sick trees to contain the spread of Xylella, but the restoration of good agronomic practices and clean-up techniques, ready on the market. In a healthy society, the right sequence of priorities is: ecosystem first, then society and lastly the economy. Our politicians do the opposite. It is evident that this cannot continue. There would be no future for mankind. The economy we are talking about here does not refer to that of peoples (human, biological economy), but to that of large corporations, which are getting richer, while humans are getting poorer.


Abstract

Xylella is not the cause of the olive tree disease in Puglia. The disease is called Complex of Quick Olive Desiccation (CoDiRO) and is caused by environmental criticalities, which have determined the sterility of the soil. These criticalities have lasted for decades and are stronger in the Salento outbreak areas, where, in fact, for years the desertification is more evident than in other provinces of Puglia. There is a close relationship between pollution, desertification and CoDiRO. Only those who do not want to see it do not see it and therefore do not provide facilities for agricultural models with low environmental impact. Indeed, the blindness of our Ministry of Agriculture has produced a DM Martina, which even obliges farmers to use massive pesticide. People from Salento is fighting against governments, regional and national, even by demonstrations, to block the DM. Unfortunately, the Apulia political leaders are deaf and blind even in the face of the encouraging results of researches conducted by private research groups and mixed groups composed of olive tree growers and private and and public researchers. The solution to CoDiRO desease is not the slaughter of sick and non-diseased trees or the fight against the Xylella, but the restoration of good agronomic practices and agro-depolluting techniques, already available on the market. In a healthy society, the right sequence of priorities is: first the ecosystem, second the society and lastly the economy. Our politicians do the opposite. It is clear that this cannot continue. There would not be future for mankind. The economy we are talking about here is not the economy of the people (human economy, the biological one), but that of the big corporations, which become richer and richer, while the humans become increasingly poor.


The cause of olive tree disease in Puglia is not Xylella

In Puglia, the mass media began to spread the news of the disease of the olive trees, placing the emphasis above all on a bacterium, which obstructs xylematic vessels, identified as Xylella fastidiosa subspecies pauca, codiro strain. The name of the species (fastidiosa) derives from the fact that it is a bacterium of difficult identification, that of the subspecies (pauca) derives from the Latin (little) and that of the strain derives from the fact that the disease had already been called the Complex of the Rapid Desiccation of the Olive tree (CoDiRO). The disease began to be noticed, towards the end of the first decade of this century (2008-2010), in some areas of Lower Salento (LE), and then (years 2013-1014) to start to be more evident and to appear, here and the, also in other areas further north of Salento itself and even more recently (years 2016-2018) also in other more north areas (Ostuni, Cisternino and Ceglie Messapica) of the same Puglia (Alto Salento).

According to entomologists, the bacterium is transported from tree to tree by some vector insects that feed on sap found in wild herbs and trees, including olive trees, but believe that the main vector is the so-called sputacin (Philaenus spumarius), a insect widespread in Puglia, but also elsewhere. According to some mycological pathologists, among the causes of the disease there are also numerous species of tracheomycotic and foliar pathogenic fungi and according to some entomologists there are also some parasitic insects of the olive tree.

Therefore, especially some bacteriologists and entomologists, believing that the cause of CoDiRO is mainly Xylella, a quarantine bacterium, and that its vector or diffuser is the sputacin, an ubiquitous insect, they immediately suggested that the only way to block the disease is to contain the development of the insect with insecticides, to destroy spontaneous herbs with herbicides or plows and to cut down the olive trees attacked by the bacterium, including also trees that are within 100 meters around the tree infected. The so-called experts, in practice, suggest destroying the ecosystem and its biodiversity in order not to feed the parasites. Does all this make sense? In addition to human stupidity, there is a real gap in understanding the importance of biodiversity in the resilience of ecosystems.

On the merits, I made my thoughts known, through written interventions (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8), and oral interviews and presentations at different conferences in different locations in Puglia (9, 10, 11 ). In all cases, I have tried to highlight that thinking of containing the spread of the disease with the felling of trees, infected and uninfected, and of using full-fledged insecticides and plowing the land is a real madness, since the cause is not Xylella, as mushrooms are not and insects are not, but, at the most, there would be several causes, as specified in the denomination of the disease itself: Rapid Desiccation of the Olive Complex (CoDiRO).

The conditional (it would be) is a must, because my opinion was and remains that the real causes of the disease are some environmental critical issues, that is, factors that are upstream of Xylella, fungi and insects. Opinion also supported by the following objective observations: 1) at present, it has not yet been demonstrated, unequivocally, that Xylella is the cause of the disease; I mention only the Xylella because it is the pathogen most emphasized by the media, by the phytosanitary observatory of the Puglia Region, by the Ministry of Agriculture and by the European Commission; 2) there are positive olive plants, that is, containing the bacterium, for years now, but which do not manifest the disease; 3) there are negative olive trees, that is without bacteria, but which present the disease and are the vast majority.

In my contributions, I have repeatedly stressed that pathogens, including Xylella, are opportunists and that they can become virulent (aggressive) especially when olive trees weaken, becoming vulnerable to all adverse biotic factors, such as they are all parasites, animals and plants (e.g. Xylella), and abiotic, such as climate change, including temperatures, humidity, etc., and the presence of toxic substances in the air and soil. Olive trees, like all plants, weaken especially when they are no longer able to feed normally, living in a sterile and / or polluted soil (heavy metals, etc.).

In this regard, the international literature, mainly by American scholars (4), has amply highlighted, without equivocation, that the glyphosate molecule, the one contained in the herbicide Roundup, used for at least three decades by the Apulian and Salento olive growers in particular, to eliminate the spontaneous herbs that grow in the olive groves, in order to keep the flower beds clean under the trees and therefore facilitate the harvest of the olives from the soil. It is a substance that in addition to killing herbs, blocking an important enzyme of the metabolic chain, not only of herbs, but very likely also of the olive trees, also kills the soil microflora, oxidizes microelements, making them unavailable also to the roots of olive trees and finally stimulates many pathogens present in the environment (4, 6).

The same thing is done by AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, primary metabolite of glyphosate), a derivative of glyphosate, which has recently been found, together with glyphosate, also in drinking tap water of various Italian regions (6). The reports of the regional institutions (4) show that in the province of Lecce (outbreak areas of the epidemic), the consumption of herbicide (the Roundup containing glyphosate) per hectare is at least four times higher than that of the other Apulian provinces.

If we add to this that in Salento almost all irrigation water comes from groundwater and it is considered that the glyphosate and its metabolite AMPA are then fished out to continue to poison the ecosystem (plant-soil) the effect harmful to glyphosate it multiplies and repeats itself perpetually. This should help to understand why the Roundup herbicide should be considered one of the critical factors of the weakening of the defense mechanisms of olive trees in the outbreak areas of Salento, more than elsewhere. The spread of the disease outside the initial outbreak areas of Salento has a fantasy smell of the authors, mostly officials of the Puglia Region and / or the province of Brindisi (Alto Salento), supporters, probably in good faith, of the relationship between Xylella and disease.

Since the Xylella case broke out in Puglia, several olive growers who have never believed in the story of the bacterium, also in collaboration with some Apulian and Neapolitan bacteriologists and mycologists (private and public), have tried to save the olive trees affected by CoDiRO, with or without Xylella, restoring good agricultural practices on a surface of over 60 hectares, located in 23 Municipalities of the outbreak area, and in a relatively short time (1-2 years) have observed a significant vegetative recovery of the plants ( a real healing). Some of these results have already been brought to the attention of the public in 2015 (12). Apart from that, the results of research projects are also coming, financed also by the Puglia Region to research groups composed of olive growers and researchers or experts, who will almost certainly confirm the possibility of stopping the disease. In practice, diseased olive plants can be saved with good agronomic practices and treatments that restore the balance lost to pollution by the ecosystem, also caused by the thirty-year use of insecticides, fungicides, acaricides and herbicides.

In short, one folly after another, as a cultured and reasoning people should understand that the protection of the ecosystem in which they live comes first, then that of their own society, which in any case depends on the state of health of the ecosystem and in the end that of the economy, which should depend on the state of the first two. A hierarchy of values ​​that nature does not forgive to those who do not respect it. A cultured and prepared and wise people must understand that they cannot consume more than their territory offers and must therefore try to increase the biocapacity of the territory in which they live using its natural and cultural resources, avoiding, in all ways possible, to go into debt with other countries, both developed and developing. Of course, this has not happened for at least more than half a century, because our politicians, little by little, have sold our popular sovereignty to large corporations, especially foreign ones, so much so that Italy is no longer a state (13).

This is why our governments, served by a system dominated by banks, continue to support policies favorable to industrial agricultural models, intensive agriculture or high environmental impact and to hinder the development of economically non-competitive agricultural models. Unfortunately, we do not realize that Puglia is basically an arid region, with scarce surface and underground water resources and therefore with no possibility of applying intensive agricultural models. Puglia can only apply agricultural models with a very low environmental impact and try to maximize the use of its own waters and waste waters, produced by purification plants, for irrigation and for industrial uses.

One of the many demonstrations that Xylella can be kept under control and that the affected olive trees can resume vegetating without problems was provided by a three-year research project carried out by a large group of researchers and also financed by the Puglia Region (14 ). Therefore, the institutions responsible instead of financing the felling of olive trees should encourage the development of agricultural models with low environmental impact. This would also help to avoid the use of pesticides, which are now responsible for a lot of damage to the ecosystem and human health.


Martina and pesticides decree: another splash of madness

The Ministerial Decree Martina (with 27 articles and 4 annexes), concerning "Emergency measures for the prevention, control and eradication of Xylella fastidiosa in the territory of the Italian Republic" (OJ of April 6, 2018) was written ignoring good agronomic practices and / or in any case respectful of the environment (ecosystem) and entering into contradiction with the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry and with the European Parliament.

The pesticides indicated in the DM, except for someone (biological), are not always effective, while they are certainly harmful to the environment and human health.

The DM requires the killing (explant) of infected and uninfected olive trees as a solution to the problem, while the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), already in 2015, stressed that the eradication of Xylella fastidiosa (once settled) was impossible due to the wide range of host plants and its vectors.

The leaflets or technical data sheets of the pesticides containing the active ingredients indicated in the DM report, among other things, that they are very toxic to the organisms of the ecosystem, even aquatic, and with long-term effects. The expected untreated buffer zones in order to protect aquatic organisms and arthropods would become potential areas for the development of the sputacin vector.

The pesticides listed in the DM are poisonous to bees and other insects that are also useful for pollination and, therefore, there is no doubt that they put agricultural production at risk. In many cases there is an explicit ban on using the product in the presence of bees or in any case during flowering and in the open field. In these days, in Veneto, many farmers are investigated by the prosecutor for causing an environmental disaster, as a consequence of the use of neonicotinoids and other products that stop pollination and that cause the disappearance of insect species useful for agriculture . The violation of art. 452 bis of the CP (RD 19 October 1930, n. 1398), that is, investigated for having "illegally caused a significant and measurable compromise or deterioration of an ecosystem and the biodiversity of fauna in general". The investigation shows the relationship between the use of neonicotinoids and the decrease in the number of bees in the hives located in the treated area (15).

The EU has banned the use in the open field of some neonicotinoid insecticides indicated in the DM. In particular, the ban concerns clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. Recently, for these insecticides, deadly for bees and bumblebees and neurotoxic for children, 15 European countries, including Italy, voted in favor of the permanent ban from the EU. Therefore, on the one hand Italy, in the European Commission, votes against the use of these insecticides, on the other, in its home, with the DM it inserts one of these insecticides, imidacloprid, in the obligation to treat against spitting in the open field. Is it or is it not a contradiction? EFSA (2013 and 2018) also says that neonicotinoids are potent neurotoxic especially for children.

Among other things, Directive 2009/128 / EC defined the agriculture model based on the use of pesticides as unsustainable and invites the Member States to inform the population about the acute and chronic risks and effects for human health. A thousand scientific researches demonstrate the harm of pesticides on people (16).

The Lecce Medical Association has sided against the DM, as it imposes the use of harmful insecticides, announcing a monitoring of aquifers and warns the authorities that the acute effects of these substances are known, but not long-term ones on human health (17).

The Italian League for the Fight against Tumors (LILT), declared to be against the DM, in light of its detailed document (18) on the health implications related to the adoption of the phytosanitary strategies already indicated in the so-called Silletti Plan, sent in 2015 at the top of the Puglia Region and the European Commission.

LILT stresses that today with DM Martina the alert is even more dramatic. And he cites another even more recent study carried out by the ASL of Lecce, the University of Salento and the Province of Lecce, whose results show pollution with critical levels for dangerous substances: arsenic, beryllium and vanadium. These are carcinogenic and endocrine disrupting molecules (IE), responsible for disturbances affecting the functionality of the endocrine system, with adverse effects on the health of the organism, germ cells and progeny (19).

The International Association of Doctors for the Environment (ISDE) has also taken a stand against DM Martina, since it imposes the use of harmful pesticides for biodiversity, food safety and health, in spite of the principles of prevention, precaution and rights farmers and exposed populations, damaging companies that use organic farming methods. The DM obliges, in infected areas, the use of herbicides, including the aforementioned Roundup, containing glyphosate. ISDE has already intervened with an international appeal (20).

Even more recently, ISDE has issued a press release on the danger of neonicotinoids, citing acetamiprid, a molecule that could very well be replaced by effective substances used by organic agriculture, such as pyrethrins, essential oil of sweet orange, mentioned in the DM , but with less emphasis. Acetamiprid is neurotoxic and, in mammals, has negative biological consequences on the liver, kidneys, thyroid gland, testicles and immune system. It also has a high toxicity to birds. The biological effects of neonicotinoids on humans have yet to be clarified, but the first results show significant associations between exposure and risk of developmental changes (21).

In Puglia, the AIAB (Italian Association for Organic Agriculture) with the support of various experts in the sector, recently launched an ad hoc technical table with the aim of blocking the DM Martina. To this end, the table drew up a detailed four-page technical report, which has already been sent to the President of the Region and to all the regional councilors. Yes, they will no longer be able to say that they did not know that pesticides are only harmful and that the first thing to do is not to use them, as the report is critical, but also full of alternative proposals (22).

Ever since we talk about Xylella in Puglia, the people of Salento have moved against the felling of trees, proposed by academics and bureaucrats from the Puglia Region, the Ministry of Agriculture and the European Parliament, through conferences and popular events, ignored by the media and state television channels, but widely documented by amateurs and individual citizens, to which some mayors have recently been added. The most recent manifestation of my knowledge is that related to a press conference held in the Itria Valley, with the participation of olive growers who have proven to be able to heal sick plants and pathologists, out of the choir, who have collaborated in the execution of projects, also financed by the Puglia Region, whose preliminary results show that the felling of trees is madness (23).  


A more general point of view: a dive into the past to discover the truth

The problem of olive trees in Puglia is an old problem, which fits well in a project that starts from afar (24th century). That is, since Louis Pasteur's theory of germs prevailed over that of his contemporaries, such as Antoine Béchamp and Claude Bernard, who argued, unlike Pasteur, that the cause of disease is not germs (viruses and bacteria) but the soil . It is said that Pasteur himself, shortly before dying, confessed that the soil is everything, while the microbe is zero (25, 26, 27, XNUMX).

However, the pharmaceutical companies loved the theory of germs because this allowed them to sell the molecules (drugs) capable of killing viruses and bacteria and therefore start that big business that led them to become increasingly richer and therefore more powerful, so as to possess the banks and consequently governments.

Thus a dominant antisocial system has developed, which becomes increasingly difficult to change. In any case, this picture serves to explain why the history of the disease of olive trees and Xylella in Puglia could not have a different history, closer to the truth and that is that the cause is not the bacterium but the soil, what I have above also called environmental criticalities.

In practice, in a world dominated by falsehoods it is difficult to make truth prevail. We can only hope to increase awareness and the ability to distinguish true from false in the population. And only when we reach the critical threshold will the change be almost automatic.


By the way, sick olive trees can be saved from germs (microorganisms)

A few decades ago, about a century after Pasteur, a French chemist, Teruo Higa, a Japanese agronomist and microbiologist, arrives and discovers the actual microorganisms. Higa was looking for alternatives to chemicals used in agriculture, but his research remained unsuccessful until 1981. A few years later, analyzing the behavior, content and effect on vegetation of the microorganisms used in his experiments, he discovered that a particular combination of crops called EM (Effective Microorganisms), had a satisfactory beneficial effect in agriculture (28).

In the years that followed, Higa continued her research on the island of Shigacki at a religious institution and found that her combination of microbial cultures had proved stable, reproducible and effective even in sectors other than agriculture, such as for purification of water, remediation and waste management and for the preparation of special feed.

Well, recently, a researcher from the CRA (Council for Research in Agriculture) of Pescia has obtained positive results with the application of EM technology (29) for the management of environmental and ornamental greenery, but apparently the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestry Policies, the body that supervises the CRA, does not know them. If he had known and taken it into account Minister Martina would have suggested the technology to the officials and researchers of Puglia, instead of decreeing the massive use of pesticides.

But that is not all. When in the first paragraph of this contribution, I spoke of the success of Salento olive growers in saving the olive trees affected by CoDiRO, it must be added that that success was also due to the use of EM microorganisms. The question then is: why did such an idea come to the olive growers of Salento and not to the microbiologists of the University and / or research centers of Puglia or of the Ministry of Agriculture or of the EU Agriculture Commission? This story alone is enough to justify the lack of trust on the part of the people in the institutions and in the so-called science, which after several years, even of conflicts with the Salentines, is still of the idea that to save the olive groves you have to take out the Xylella or the olive varieties susceptible to the bacterium must be replaced with resistant ones.

But what science is a science that, above all, shows that it has not yet understood the importance of biodiversity in agro-ecosystems? And just like that, replacing susceptible varieties with resistant varieties would lead to a further reduction in biodiversity, as well as proving to be an operation with limited effects over time, since pathogens, including Xylella, over time would always get the better of the olive trees and more generally on all susceptible crops, if the true causes of the disease are not eliminated.

The use of plants of Xylella-resistant olive varieties or olive groves made up of susceptible varieties grafted with resistant varieties are not even remotely comparable to those of the historical resistance of vineyards to phylloxera (Phylloxera vastatrix or Viteus vitifoliae), such as some might think, because in this second case we speak of true (total) resistance to an insect of the rootstock (lower part of the plant grafted with susceptible varieties), while in the first case it is tolerance to a bacterium (more polymorphic than the insect ) of the scion or graft (upper part of the grafted plant) to be grafted onto a susceptible rootstock.


Quantum physics and vibrational frequencies in living organisms

The development of Quantum Physics has made us understand that the health of living organisms depends on various factors, including the typical frequencies of each living organism and those of its organs and tissues. If these frequencies change as a consequence of the negative (destructive) interference of different frequencies from electromagnetic fields present in the external or internal environment, organisms become susceptible to disease and depending on the severity they can also cease to live.

It is not science fiction, as many might think. In the world there are now several centers that are positively experimenting with the application of quantum physics with different tools depending on the disease and its severity, in humans (30, 31, 32). Based on the same principles, trees have a positive effect on the health of man and other living organisms that live in the same ecosystem, but if the ecosystem is polluted, trees no longer have the same therapeutic effect, because pollution produces malevolent frequencies (33) and DNA damage (34).

The topic is so important that it deserves a proper study, but the goal here is only to mention it to make our politicians understand how far they are from a solution that would be much more natural (not harmful) and less expensive than what they want implement: eliminate olive trees to keep Xylella at bay. Isn't it absurd?

In the case of the plant world, there are already liquid products to be suitably diluted and sprayed on plants and on the ground (also together with irrigation water), among other things not at all dangerous for humans, which have the effect of clean up and positively influence the frequencies of the treated plants and the ecosystem. The products of my knowledge, already used in the Apulian countryside, are Bio Aksxter (35) and Gold Manna (36).

Visiting the Salento countryside, I personally saw several olive groves affected by CoDiRO which, treated with Bio Aksxter, within a few years, started to revegetate and produce normally. Positive results were also observed on vines, cherry trees and various vegetable plants. There are on the merits of the videos produced by the operators themselves, which I hope will be made available to interested people. The reason why the communicators of these technologies avoid contacting the institutions is always the same: there is the risk of wasting time and being even derided.


Effects of globalization on the economy and the health of ecosystems

Globalization in general and that of markets in particular has exacerbated competitiveness between and within nations. This has initiated a process that increasingly leads to the elimination of the weakest, making the social environment increasingly selective (a sort of eugenics). In reality, a competitive environment does not eliminate the weakest genetically, but the poorest because they have no economic possibility and therefore no access to resources. The negative effects of a society based on competitiveness affect the health of the peoples and therefore of the ecosystems in which they live.

We already knew, but it has been confirmed by the results of twenty years of research on the human genome project that the environment, in a broad sense, is more important than the genetic heritage. In fact, it is wrong to say that the genome expresses itself or does not express itself. It is more correct, however, to say that the genome is read or not read. And who is the reader? The environment. In the specific case, the environmental conditions produced by agrotechnics. A good agrotechnics is able to correctly read the genome of the olive tree and of all living organisms. Polluting agrotechnics negatively affects the reading of the genome, giving green light to pathogens. Bringing the olive trees to dry.

The reason why we insist on attributing diseases to pathogens and not to the environment is that in this way we continue to feed the whole industry of synthetic chemical fertilizers and so-called pesticides. This type of industrial agriculture involves pollution and therefore an increase in diseases also for humans and animals. It is very good for fueling the Big Pharma industry, which is the third largest business in the world after Finance and Oil (3).

Big Pharma is also facilitated by a wrong (industrial) food system, supported also by policies financed by Big Pharma itself. Policies that do everything to promote a sick social system, based on a competitive and uncooperative economy, as human biology would like. The law of biology requires cooperation, while that of corporate economics requires competition. Therefore, the law of economics is intrinsically destructive, i.e. pathological (37).

To improve society, it is necessary to encourage cooperation and discourage competition. Knowledge and therefore free and independent researchers, not conditioned by the establishment, can contribute.

Fritjof Capra, in his book "The turning point - Science, society and emerging culture" has rightly stated that "We need a new paradigm, a new vision of reality" (38). In his book, Capra explains why we must necessarily move from a Copernican, Cartesian, Newtonian, mechanistic and reductionist vision to a holistic vision. Will we be able to make this quantum leap? It depends on us humans.


Conclusions

The agroecological reality of Salento clearly shows that the cause of the disease of the olive trees is not Xylella, but a set of environmental criticalities, which our politicians do not want to recognize, deal with and solve because it would mean moving from industrial or high environmental impact agricultural models to agricultural models with low environmental impact, going against large corporations, which can thus continue to thrive only thanks to industrial models.

The problem of olive tree disease in Puglia can be solved with a holistic approach. The first actions to be taken are the restoration of good agronomic practices, the stimulation of different forms of organic agriculture, the increase in biodiversity, through the breeding of different olive varieties, associated with other fruit trees and herbaceous plants , preferably leguminous plants, as well as the initiation of clean-up measures, eliminating the use of artificial products, such as chemical fertilizers and pesticides (insecticides, fungicides, acaricides and herbicides, especially Roundup, containing glyphosate).

The use of waste water for irrigation should also be encouraged, thus leading to a reduction in the use of groundwater, and the use of microorganisms effects (EM), as well as of polluting fertilizers, such as Bio Aksxter and Gold Manna, already used profitably by some farmers in Puglia and the rest of Italy. These are little-known technologies, also because many farmers apply them, almost secretly, as they fear pressure from characters who directly or indirectly are more interested in preserving the current paradigm than in changing it.

In general, politicians, servants of a system dominated by banks and based on falsehoods, will never be able to change the current system. Change in a society is only possible when awareness reaches the critical threshold of change. A threshold that we have obviously not yet reached. A demonstration has been given to us in recent days by our President of the Republic, Sergio Mattarella, who hindered the formation of a government, which, according to him, would have hindered the markets (banks) and increased the spread.

To win the battle against institutions (dismissals) that do not intend to protect the ecosystem, because they place the competitive (destructive) economy of large corporations before a collaborative (biological and constructive) economy, it is necessary to reach the critical threshold of change. A goal only possible if you move from a Cartesian and mechanistic vision to a holistic one.


References

1. Pietro Perrino, 22 August, 2014. Pietro Perrino: in the same areas of the infected plants of Xylella fastidiosa, others coexist which, on the other hand, are healthy. http://centrostudiagronomi.blogspot.it/2014/08/pietro-perrino-nelle-stesse-aree-delle.html
2. Pietro Perrino 2015. Xylella case. Pietro Perrino's intervention at the Puglia Region. Il Foglietto, April 14, 2015.https://ilfoglietto.it/enti/altri-enti/3875-caso-xylella-lintervento-di-pietro-perrino-presso-la-regione-puglia.html
3. Pietro Perrino, 2015. Xylella, 29 reasons to say no to the felling of olive trees. Il Foglietto, 23 June 2015.https://ilfoglietto.it/approfondimenti/temi-di-discussione/4037-Xylella-29-motivi-per-dire-no-allabbattimento-delle-piante-di-olivo.html
4. Pietro Perrino, 2015. Xylella? The real causes of CoDiRO are glyphosate, poisons and environmental criticalities. IL Foglietto, 22 July 2015. https://ilfoglietto.it/approfondimenti/temi-di-discussione/4083-xylella-le-vere-cause-del-codiro-sono-glifosato-veleni-e-criticita-del-sistema.html
5. Pietro Perrino, 2016. The prof. Perrino presents a series of critical observations to the Director of Agriculture Dept. on contrast measures to CoDiRO and Xylella. March 19, 2016.http://www.tagpress.it/ambiente/codiro-e-xylella-prof-perrino-scrive-a-nardone-20160319
6. Giuseppe Altieri, Pietro Massimiliano Bianco, Valter Bellucci, Franesca Floccia, Carlo Jacomini, Pietro Perrino, Rosalba Tamburro and Franco Trinca, May 2016. Xylella fastidiosa and Olivo.
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Pietro_Bianco/publication/303408704_Xylella_fastidiosa_e_olivo/links/5742ded808ae9f741b379088/Xylella-fastidiosa-e-olivo.pdf
7. Pietro Perrino, 2016. Xylella. Perrino's comment on the judgment of the European Court of Justice. Il Foglietto, 8 September 2016. https://ilfoglietto.it/il-foglietto/4857-xylella-perrino-la-sentenza-della-corte-di-giustizia-europea-basata-su-conoscenze-sbagliate-o-incomplete.html
8. Pietro Perrino, 2016. Xylella fastidiosa, presented a bill by the Puglia Region. Pietro Perrino's comment. Il Foglietto, 22 September 2016.  https://ilfoglietto.it/approfondimenti/temi-di-discussione/4901-xylella-fastidiosa-presentato-un-disegno-di-legge-dalla-regione-puglia-il-commento-di-pietro-perrino
9. Pietro Perrino, 2015. The problem is not Xylella fastidiosa, as the mass media emphasize. Contribution presented to the LAUDATO SI Study Seminar, Bari Aldo Moro Conference Room 12 November 2015. BelSalento Services. Video: 32-47 min: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=37DR8GXQs5U10. Pietro Perrino, 2015. Global Climate Mobilization - Aula Magna Attilio Alto - Bari, 28 November 2015 - BelSalento Services. Video: 6: 47-29: 20.
http://belsalento.altervista.org/mobilitazione-globale-sul-clima-seminario-internazionale-di-studi-28-nov-2015-aula-magna-attilio-alto-politecnico-di-bari/
11. Pietro Perrino, 2016. Task force 14 June 2016. Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oE7Jlj_t4WE
12. Luisiana Gaita, 9 October 2015. Xylella, 450 olive trees sprout after a year of traditional and organic treatments. Scientists: "Interesting, but caution is needed." Il Fatto Quotidiano.it / Environment & Poisons.
https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2015/10/09/xylella-450-ulivi-germogliano-dopo-un-anno-di-cure-tradizionali-e-bio-scienziati-interessante-ma-serve-cautela/2108300/
13 Marco Mori, 2016. The decline of democracy. Legal analysis of the genesis of a European dictatorship. Publisher: Agorà & Co. (Sarzana). Necklace: Leviathan, 2016. Pages: 240.
14. Marco Scrotichini, Jianchi Chen, Monica De Caroli, Giuseppe Dalessandro, Nicoletta Pucci, Vanessa Modesti, Alessia L'aurora, Milena Petriccione, Luigi Zampella, Francesco Mastrobuoni, Danilo Migoni, Laura Del Coco, Chiara Roberta Girelli, Filippo Piacente, Nicola Cristella, Paolo Marangi, Francesco Laddomada, Michele Di Cesare, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi and Stefania Loreti, 2018. A zinc, copper and citric acid biocomplex shows promise for control of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca in olive trees in Apulia Region (southern Italy). Mediterranean Phytopathologia (2018), 57, 1, 48−72. www.fupress.com/pm. ISSN (online): 1593-2095 © Florence University Press DOI: 10.14601 / Phytopathol_Mediterr-21985.
15. Il Fattoquotidiano.it/Ambiente e Veleni, 5 May 2018. Udine, 38 farmers investigated for environmental disaster: with their pesticides they have exterminated tens of thousands of bees. https://www.ilfattoquotidiano.it/2018/05/05/udine-38-agricoltori-indagati-per-disastro-ambientale-con-i-loro-pesticidi-hanno-sterminato-decine-di-migliaia-di-api/4335476/
16. Scientific articles on the harm of pesticides to people. http://www.dmi.units.it/~soranzo/antipesticide-net-update-it.html
17. De Filippis, Lecce Medical Association: "The measures to combat xylella do not disregard the protection of citizens". Il Tacco d'Italia, 10 May 2018. (https://www.iltaccoditalia.info/2018/05/10/de-filippis-ordine-medici-lecce-le-misure-di-contrasto-alla-xylella-non-prescindano-dalla-tutela-dei-cittadini/
18. Xylella case, pesticides and human health risks health profile of the province of lecce. By LILT, 5 March 2015. http://www.legatumorilecce.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/caso-xylella-pesticidi-e-rischi-per-la-salute-umana.pdf
19. Xylella and insecticides, the Lilt: “Here not: already too many contaminations; tumor diseases prove it ”. Piazzasalento editorial staff, 9 May 2018. www.piazzasalento.it/xylella-insetticidi-la-lilt-no-gia-troppe-le-contaminazioni-le-malattie-tumorali-lo-dimostrano-98282.
20. Call to Action against the decision of the European Commission renewing the approval of glyphosate. ISDE, October 17, 2017. http://www.isde.org/glyphosate_appeal.pdf
21. Press release, ISDE Italy: Pesticides harmful to the environment and human health cannot be imposed by law. ISDE, May 8, 2018. http://www.isde.it/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/2018.05.08-Comunicato-stampa-ISDE-Italia-Pesticidi-dannosi-per-ambiente-e-salute.pdf.
22. Margherita Ciervo et al. , 22 May 2018. Xylella, the document of the AIAB technical table sent to the Puglia Region. https://www.aiabpuglia.org/xylella-il-documento-del-tavolo-tecnico-e-il-conto-dedicato/
23. Press conference - Video: no to explants, no to pesticides. Cosate, Valle d'Itria - 19.05.2018, Contrada Termetrio. Martina decree. Illogical, illegitimate, unconstitutional madness. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fuo-LpbVh5Q&feature=share
24. Marcello Pamio, 2014. Liver, virus and health. Biolcalenda insert. October. Year 7 - No. 68. http://www.labiolca.it/wp-content/uploads/inserto-effervescienza/effe68.pdf
25. Copyright Bee Wilder April 3, 2015. You Cannot Catch Bugs, Germs, Bacteria or Candida / Fungi https://www.healingnaturallybybee.com/you-cannot-catch-bugs-germs-bacteria-or-candidafungi/
26. Claudio Viacava, no data. Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites - the uncomfortable truths.
http://www.mednat.org/germi_teoria_viacava.pdf
27. Arthur M. Baker, 2005. Exposing the Myth of the Germ Theory, Not many people realize that bacteria and viruses are the result not the cause of disease. http://www.mednat.org/ExposingTheMythOfTheGermTheory.pdf

28. Teruo Higa, 1993. An Earth Saving Revolution. Effective Microorganisms - Wellbeing and regeneration respecting nature - The revolution that will save us. Nature & Health. Prontostampa srl ​​(Bg), April 2015, 180 pages.
29. Domenico Prisa, 2014. Use of beneficial microorganisms for the qualitative improvement of ornamental plants. Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture, CRA-VIV, Pescia (PT) Via dei Fiori 8, 51012 e-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
30. Marco Fincati, 2016. RQI - The secret of the car to feel good, pages 252.
31. Piergiorgio Spaggiari and Caterina Tribbia, 2016. Medicine through quantum physics. Quantum Medicine, pages 240.
32. Nicola Limardo, 2016. Quantum technology, applied to the particle of God with a new theorizing of the "Law of Everything". Reprint 2016, pages 308.
33. Marco, Mencagli and Marco Nieri, 2017. The secret tree therapy. The hidden energy of plants and forests for our well-being, pages 216.
34. Maurizio Proietti, 2018. Pollution and Diseases - Autism, intestinal permeability, celiac disease, multiple chemical sensitivity. Edizioni Minerva Medica, SpA, pages 276.
35. Alessandro Mendini and Silvana Zambanini, 2006. Bio Aksxter for a better life - the depolluting fertilizer. A practical 107 page manual.
36. Nutrient Depletion of our Foods Submitted to: Mr. Kevin Guest Chief Marketing Officer USANA Health Sciences Submitted by: Lyle MacWilliam, MSc, FP MacWilliam Communications Inc. 7594 Klinger Road Vernon, British Columbia CANADA V1H 1H4 November 9, 2009.
http://www.myhealthyhome.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/NutrientDepletionofourFoods.pdf
37. Emilio Del Giudice (2013). Quantum Physics and Biology. The law of economics and that of biology. http://www.mauroscardovelli.com/FS/Filosofia_e_scienza/Fisica_QuantisticaDel_Giudice.html

38. Fritjof Capra, 2014. The turning point - Science, society and emerging culture. Fifteenth edition in the "Universal Economy" - Essays, November 2014, pages 382.

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